Monday, February 24, 2020

There is no point in having a doctrine of administrative Essay

There is no point in having a doctrine of administrative unreasonableness. Discuss - Essay Example It might be further added that an administrative decision would be deemed as unreasonable if it is so unreasonable that no reasonable authority could have ever reached it.1 This sounds very pompous but in effect is nothing but a tautology that would make a lawyer feel proud of their linguistic expertise without clarifying one little bit the issue at hand. To begin with one must differentiate between unreasonableness and other grounds for review of an administrative decision. The other grounds for a review of an administrative decision are ‘irrelevant considerations’ and ‘improper purposes’. These two grounds are mainly concerned with administrative process and evaluate whether the administrative authority made specific mistakes in the course of the administrative process by considering irrelevant issues or by directing its attention to an improper purpose. But the review conducted on grounds of ‘unreasonableness’ does not examine the administrat ive process; it is more concerned with the end result. This means the court need not enquire whether any specific ‘mistake’ has occurred, instead it would deliberate on the reasonableness of the administrative decision. ... However, this doctrine is so intrinsically vague as it leaves the final decision of unreasonableness to the sensibilities of the judges without any support of undeniable evidence that courts are usually very cautious in employing this ground of review and will only in rarest of rare occasions strike down an administrative decision as unreasonable. Therefore, though the doctrine of unreasonableness is a very potent weapon in the hands of judiciary to correct the wrongs done by the administrative arm of the government, its rare use perhaps blunts a good deal of its potentiality. The issue should be examined from another perspective to get a better idea about its effectiveness in a civil society. Let us assume that a decision will never be unreasonable unless some mistake has occurred in the administrative process. If that be so, unreasonableness is not a defect by itself but a symptom of another defect. Such an apprehension may lead the court to issue an order of nisi (as it is done in Israel) or grant leave for a judicial review (as it is done in England). Subsequently, as the review progresses, it may be unearthed that the decision is flawed with irrelevant considerations or improper purposes. If that be the case, the administrative decision can be overturned on those grounds and not on grounds of unreasonableness. It might also be that the review would lead to the conclusion that the administrative decision is based on relevant considerations and proper purposes and therefore cannot be flawed on these grounds but it might come to light that the authority had given unnecessary importance and undue weight to an otherwise relevant consideration. It could, for instance, be that the authority has converted a marginally relevant

Friday, February 7, 2020

Project time managment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Project time managment - Essay Example This paper explores the importance of developing a time-phase baseline for project planning, management, and performance evaluation. For a project’s successful implementation and effective monitoring, cost- and time-phased baselines are some of the key approaches often used. Specifically, since most projects have definite periods for completion, a time-phased baseline for project planning and implementation is highly recommended3. Without such a baseline, there would be nothing to measure project progress against, during or after its implementation. Time-phased baseline helps in comparing the projected time value of against the delivered time value. That is, has a project really been completed and used within the anticipated time or has the estimated quantity of project been delivered in the planned time4? A time-phased baseline for project planning and evaluation thus assists in answering the question of whether a project has been started and finished at the expected time5. By being in a position to measure the budgeting of time in a project, stakeholders are better placed to detect and address problems s uch as delays and stoppages for improvements. A time-phased baseline thus helps project stakeholders to evaluate how well a project runs and to measure the accuracy in time estimations6. Additionally, once the accuracy of time estimation has been established, time-phased baseline for project evaluation can be used for similar projects or modified for other related projects. Time-phased baseline thus helps one to assess his/her ability to estimate project cost, labor, time, and overall performance. Importantly, time-phased baseline helps in establishing whether enough time has bee allocated for the different project phases7. That is, any over- and under-estimations of time are dealt with once detected. Finally, time-phased baseline is useful in allocating

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Christian Perspective on Counseling Essay Example for Free

Christian Perspective on Counseling Essay This is a personal theory paper which focuses on the Christian perspective; it involves the integration of faith and scripture into the personal counseling process. It discusses personality structures, individual differences and the motivations that guide and push the human person. Included is a contextual definition of health and the factors that cause illness. They are understood by using psychological techniques in concurrence with Biblical truths. Employing a theological worldview for counseling helps a therapist’s awareness of the innermost complexities of a client and enables them to be an effective guide towards the path of hope and healing. Introduction Counseling is centrally and critically a relationship between people who care (Crabb, 1977). It is essential that a psychotherapist develop a genuine desire for the well-being of a client. This is an ideal arrangement for which a Christian counselor can flourish, because â€Å"Every Christian is called to a ministry of encouraging and helping others (Crabb, 1977)†. Although an atmosphere of caring and encouragement is not limited to Christians it is ideal to integrate psychology and Christian spirituality to most effectively aid clients. Personality Personality structure and components There are many theories involving the structure of the human personality. One is the theory presented by Dr. Ron E. Hawkins (2006a). In this theory, Dr. Hawkins likens each individual to many concentric circles. Every circle is affected by the other circles but every one has its own distinctive characteristics. This structure can best elucidate the complexities that exist inside an individual. The boundaries between circles can help determine the source of each dilemma and each circle provides a different approach to problem-solving. The first circle is the innermost circle of a person and encapsulates the very essence of being human. It is in this most personal circle that the Holy Spirit inhabits within each believer, as supported by the biblical quote â€Å"The kingdom of God is within you† (Luke 17:21). Also included in this circle are the options of free-will and the concept of original sin. The original sin is common to all human beings as maintained by Paul when he writes his letter to the Romans and utters, â€Å"for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God† (Romans 3:23). It must be noted that outside of issues involving deliverance, there is not much that can be dealt with in this circle by human intervention. Instead, if a problem really reverberates from this circle it must be surrendered in strong faith to the hands of God. The next circle encloses the soul, feeling, and cognitive aspects of the human being. For most clients looking for counseling, this is the circle that receives the most focus. It is in this circle that emotional and psychological troubles not originating from biological sources resonate. The next circle in this theory of personality makeup is the biological circle. This circle consists of the biological processes and focuses on the wellness of the physical human body. Problems in this circle include chemical imbalance which is the failure to normalize the chemicals in the brain, resulting in problems like obsession, anxiety, panic attacks, paranoia, and insomnia. Problems in this circle are more likely to have physical sources, like physical trauma or abuse. The next circle is another prevailing source of problems dealt with in counseling. The temporal circle, it is the beginning of external focused aspects. In this circle, external environmental structures like society and culture have a significant influence on the individual. Societal values and cultural expectations will always have an impact on personality development. Society, friends, family, and church are examples of the temporal systems that must be dealt with when counseling people. Learning who the client is responsible to and what he is responsible for is essential to developing personal responsibility (Cloud Townsend, 1992). Additionally, the influences of the client’s family system are dealt with in this circle. The Bible supports this, â€Å"fathers, do not exasperate your children; instead bring them up in the training and instruction of the Lord† (Ephesians 6:4). Many problems can be rooted from the effects of family and environment The final circle of the human personality structure is the circle of the supernatural. This includes the archetypal epic struggle between good and evil, demons and angels. Despite this concept it is important to keep in mind that â€Å"our struggle is not against flesh and blood, but against the rulers, against the authorities, against the powers of this dark world and against the spiritual forces of evil in the heavenly realms† (Ephesians 6:12). The Bible states that demonic power is a real and it would be imprudent to disregard its potential. Spiritual forces have a great impact on personality development and it cannot be excluded from the growth process Motivation There are five basic propositions about motivation: [1] human beings are all motivated to seek our needs, [2] motivational energy is channeled through the mind and results in specific behavior, [3] motivated behavior is always directed towards a goal, [4] when a goal is perceived to be impossible a state of disequilibrium exists, and finally, [5] all behavior is motivated and all behavior makes sense (Crabb, 1986). Motivation is a drive toward security and significance, with these thoughts in mind, Dr. Crabb details that the definitive goal of counseling is to â€Å"free people to better worship and serve God by helping them become more like the Lord† (1977). Individual differences In counseling, the level of maturity of each client must be assessed. Individuals are in the process of ‘moving over’ and ‘moving up’, clients differ in as to where they are in the process of dealing with presenting problems in a manner consistent with scripture and developing a Christ-like character (Crabb, 1977). Perhaps the most important reason that accounts for individual differences is that God provided free will to His creation. This free will makes each person unique and not merely a puppet with predetermined actions. Alteration of procedure used in counseling is necessary when dealing with different types of people. Some clients should be approached in a feeling level while others should be led spiritually. Cognitive based personalities are best dealt with on the thinking level and those suffering from physical disabilities are helped first with their tangible needs (Hawkins, 2006). Health A contextual explanation of health All counselors should want their clients to become healthy. According to McMinn (1996), the three factors that determine health are: accurate awareness of self, accurate awareness of needs and involvement in healthy relationships. Basing self-worth on the word of God is an effective strategy; to be able to create a self-image based on the unconditional love of Christ is a helpful direction for people who are injured in the different psychological aspects of their lives. McGee (1992) states, â€Å"changing our beliefs from false beliefs to the truths of God’s Word will assist us in experiencing more appropriate emotions and thereby will change the way we respond†. Helping clients to become more Christ-like in seeking self-worth and happiness is the goal of Christian counseling. A contextual explanation of illness The sources of illness are biological, cognitive, emotional and spiritual. Biological are often the easiest to identify they have physical signs that can be studied. Biological illnesses include physical sickness, chemical imbalances, and traumatic abuse. Typically, biological problems can be treated with medications or removal of the source of problem. For instance, physical trauma caused by an abusive husband involves treatment wherein the first step is to remove the victim from the abusive relationship. The cognitive aspect is the area of focus for most counseling therapies. Many problems that counselors must contend with relate to cognitive disorders, including depression, anxiety, guilt, and fear. The illnesses with a cognitive source are of critical concern as they are often more difficult to treat than biological illnesses. Emotional causes must also be considered. Sandra Wilson’s (2001) mantra of Hurt People Hurt People explains how emotional damage begets more emotional damage. Out of wounded emotions, people repeat the same torture to those they are closest to. Finally, illnesses can also be of a spiritual character. In order to be successful and productive counselors â€Å"we have to learn to distinguish between organic or psychological mental illness and a spiritual battle for the mind,† (Anderson, 2000). Spiritual illnesses stem from sin, a lack of faith, and destructive influences. Anderson (2000) advises, â€Å"Don’t think Satan is no longer interested in manipulating your mind in order to accomplish his purposes. Satan’s perpetual aim is to infiltrate your thoughts with his thoughts and to promote his lie in the face of God’s truth. He knows that if he can control you thoughts, he can control your life† Therapeutic Involvement Techniques, methods The Bible provides excellent guidance in various aspects of life; it is an excellent source for every Christian counselor. Accordingly, â€Å"all Scripture is God-breathed and is useful for teaching, rebuking, correcting and training in righteousness† (2 Timothy 3:16-17). In a helping relationship, techniques are used to help the client reach the point of change. One approach that Christian counselors should not be without is prayer. Craigie and Tan (as cited in McMinn, 1996) write, â€Å"Indeed, praying with clients that they may be liberated from resistant misbeliefs, that they may be empowered to do the truth, and that they may come into a deeper relationship with the truth can sometimes be a most powerful experience†. The use of scripture in therapy sessions is useful in integrating God’s Truths to a client’s mindset. The use of the technique miracle question is helpful; this is a method of questioning which begins by helping the client imagine a situation wherein, overnight, a miracle happens that solves all their familial problems. The client has to define what differences they would observe to prove that a miracle had taken place. This is vital in making the client realize how vastly improved their relationships will be when the problems are resolved and defines the goal they aim to achieve. The method of Scaling questions is another tool used to rate the client’s current state, with zero/one being the most ideal and ten being the worst, this facilitates the therapist in identifying factors that prevents them from moving up the scale and recognizes what pushes them down. This is helpful in shifting the client’s focus from problems to solutions. The goal of therapy is promoting a high level of self-worth; the therapist must introduce genuineness into the environment by omitting shame from the process. This can be supplemented with compliments and positive encouragement by vocalizing admirable traits; it is a helpful exercise that generates an atmosphere of goodwill more conducive to problem solving. Hawkins (2006b) identifies the first in counseling step as own having an understanding of the real problem. Then, he goes on to reality testing. From there, a plan of action is formulated and the client is occupied with taking tenure to this plan of action and accepting accountability for its conclusion. Lastly, the counselor helps in building support and responsibility into the process of transformation concerning the client. A good cognitive counseling approach is to focus on the inner-voice and truth. The inner-voice is often constructed as a direct result of the temporal and supernatural circles in which an individual develops. In destructive or less-than-ideal relationships, the individual can develop spiteful and untruthful concepts about themselves which are constantly conveyed by the inner-voice. An understanding of truthful reality, often combating the untrue inner-voice, is critical for change. As Dr. Backus and Dr. Chapian explain, â€Å"locating and identifying pain-causing fabrications plus learning the factual reality-based truth† is therapeutic and critical for healing (2000). Expectations in success Counselors can measure success of counseling by evaluating the client’s progress in the accurate awareness of self or needs and by determining if they are participating in healing relationships (McMinn, 1996). McMinn’s affirms that, â€Å"A more careful look suggests that spiritual and psychological health require a confident sense of self, an awareness of human need, and limitations, and confiding interpersonal relationships with God and others† (1996). Real success in psychotherapy is measured by advancement not perfection. Worldview Dimensions Every individual possesses a worldview whether or not they recognize it. For example, the temporal system an individual develops in will have significant impacts on the individual’s worldview. Someone who was raised in a war torn environment with rampant violence and lawlessness will have a different set of moral code than a person is raised in a secure and peaceable community. These worldviews affect the progress in counseling; worldviews differ from person to person and may include science, perception or the Bible. It is imperative for the Christian counselor to have a broad perception of what his/her worldview consists of. The Biblical worldview filters pertinent information through the sieve of God’s Word. Since all issues are not addressed in Scripture, to sift means to see if the issue lines up with God’s Word (Collins, 2001). Uniting psychology, spirituality, and theology encompasses all the components of human behavior necessary to assess functioning (McMinn, 1996). Conclusion The integration of spirituality and theological scriptures to counseling provides a panoramic view of how psychotherapy can progress. The Bible must be used as a reference in choosing ideologies, techniques or processes to integrate in a personal theory. The use of solutions-based therapy, also referred to as solution focused therapy or brief therapy, is a type of talking therapy that is based upon social constructionist philosophy. It includes miracle and scaling questions. It focuses on what clients want to achieve through therapy. The approach focuses on the present and hopes for future, because as Dr. Worthington explains, â€Å"hope provides the motivation to work† (1999). Cognitive therapy can be used most effectively in Christian counseling because the cognitive approach is imperative in changing the client’s self-awareness by challenging negative thoughts and untruths. Cognitive therapy helps unchain the client from unrealistic expectations by perceiving and revising the pointless difficulties they place on themselves. Understanding the components of human personality through the theory of concentric circles is important in developing a complete strategy for helping individuals change. Recognition of an integrated model that considers the scripture of Christian teachings is a potent tool in wrestling against the dysfunction residing in a client’s life. Resources Anderson, N. (2000). The bondage breaker. Eugene, OR: Harvest House Publishers. Backus, William and Chapian, Marie. (2000). Telling yourself the truth. Bloomington, MN: Bethany House Publishers Cloud, H. Townsend, J. (1992). Boundaries: When to say yes when to say no to take control of your life. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan. Collins, G. (2001). The Biblical basis of Christian counseling for people helpers. Colorado Springs, CO: NavPress Publishing Group. Crabb, Larry. (1977). Effective biblical counseling: A model for helping caring Christians become capable counselors. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan. Hawkins, Ron E. (Speaker). (2006). Model for guiding the counseling process. Lynchburg, VA: Liberty University. Hawkins, R. E. (Producer). (2006b). Grid for tracking process [Motion picture]. (Available from Liberty university, 1971 University Boulevard, Lynchburg, VA 24502) Worthington, Everett L. (1999). Hope-focussed marriage counseling. Downer’s Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press Greece. McGee, R. (1992). Search for significance: Build your self worth on the forgiveness and unconditional love of Jesus Christ. Nashville, TN: LifeWay Press. McMinn, M. (1996). Psychology, theology and spirituality in Christian counseling. Wheaton, IL: Tyndale House Publishers, Inc. Wilson, S. (2001). Hurt people hurt people: Hope and healing for yourself and your relationships. Grand Rapids, MI: Discovery House Publishers.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Summary of Educating Rita :: essays research papers

Main characters are Frank who is a university lecturer and Rita who is a hair dresser. Rita wants to be educated she decides to take an Open University course. The main theme of the play is to be educated. At the start of the scene we hear a conversation between Frank and someone else on the other end of the phone. We hear him arguing if he will go to the pub or not. â€Å"What do u mean I determined to go to the pub? I don’t need determination to go to the pub†. This shows his sarcasm. Showing that he doesn’t care this shows us that he doesn’t care about his partner and he’s a caring person. Frank also doesn’t want to teach at Open University he only does it for the money. He thinks there is no point in teaching Open University because all his students will be stupid. ‘Some silly woman’s attempt to get into the mind of Henry James’ this shows he is prejudice before he starts teaching. He thinks she is going to be stupid because she didn’t get enough education. He is only doing this for the money. He doesn’t care about the job, all wants is the money to go to the pub. Then we see Rita enter the room. She barges through the room because it’s jammed. She doesn’t use the correct grammar. ‘I’m comin in aren’t I’. She speaks in colloquial English, this makes us think that she doesn’t have a good education and shows that she is working class. She speaks in a scouse accent, she swears a lot showing that she doesn’t care about offending anyone, and she is loud and enthusiastic about learning. She wants to learn because she wants a change. When Rita tries to get into the room she can’t because the handle is jammed .she manages to open it and barge in. â€Å"it’s the stupid bleeding handle†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦you wanna get that fixed†. She doesn’t wait around to fix the problems she gets them done. She isn’t lazy she wants to move things along like in life. Rita doesn’t like her life so instead of waiting around she decides to change it and get educated. She is trying to get better in life but she has to struggle to get something in life you have to work hard. Whereas frank is ignoring his problems and is drinking instead of trying to fix his problems.

Monday, January 13, 2020

o what extent is Measure For Measure a conventional comedy?

Measure For Measure, to all intents and purposes, is not a comedy akin to Much Ado About Nothing or As You Like It. However, I believe it is still a comedy for the simple reason it does not have enough defining features of a tragedy – but most certainly heralds the end of Shakespeare’s comedic run. Traditional Shakespearean comedy includes aspects such as marriage, dramatic irony and largely inconsequential acts by the ‘villain(s)’ of the play. In Measure For Measure we see all three. Marriage is both a resolution and a punishment in this play. Claudio and Juliet are to be wed by the end of the play, finally able to continue their relationship – this is a classic happily ever after sort of ending that the audience were hoping for if not expecting. However, this is the only marriage we as the audience are certain is due to love. The other two, possibly three, are the results of the Duke’s doing – Angelo is to marry his jilted lover and Lucio is to marry a whore. The Duke himself asks for Isabel’s hand in marriage but it is an unresolved aspect of the play. Nevertheless, these are still marriages so do meet my expectations. There is heavy use of wit in this play, the Duke and Lucio often are the source though there are other gibes, for instance Escalus remarking that Pompey in a ‘beastly’ way is Pompey the Great. This pokes fun at the Roman Republic political and military leader Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus – a small yet very witty, very select joke. Deception and disguise are key elements in this play – The Duke’s concealment of himself via the persona of Friar Lodowick, Mariana fooling Angelo into thinking she is Isabel and the use of Ragozine’s head for Claudio’s. These rely on heavy coincidence for the most part which justifies them as comedic features – extending the disbelief. Interestingly, Ragozine is the only death of the play. His total insignificance however means that the audience has no emotional or moral attachment to him and thus he is forgotten somewhat quickly – he is more of a plot device than a character. Indeed, Ragozine’ head, not Ragozine himself is the key part of his involvement. This lack of meaningful death means that death and tragedy are not on the minds of the audience. This also links in with forgiveness – the other pirate, Barnadine, is pardoned by a reinstated Duke regardless of his prior actions and Isabel effectively forgives Angelo, for the sake of helping Mariana yet still forgiveness nonetheless. There are also no reprimands for Escalus for the way he spoke to the Duke under disguise as Friar Lodowick – mainly because Escalus is not a main character. However, the Duke does not forgive Lucio – though his predicament is a humourous one so does not require the soft touch of reconciliation. As touched upon above, the punishments at the end are somewhat unorthodox and fairly incongruous – marriage as a punishment is both an amusing commentary by Shakespeare and soft. For instance, Lucio at first is told that he is set to die, then the tension is released when it is revealed he will not and will instead be married (released tension for the audience at least). During the final scene, all is unravelled and Claudio is reunited with Isabel – this reunification of family is a key feature of Shakespeare’s comedy, seen before in Twelth Night most famously. As mentioned above, Pompey provides humour for the audience and is the fool of the play. Though he is not the only fool. There is Elbow as well and even Lucio to an extent is a fool. In accordance with this, Measure For Measure has the largest portion of fools in its character list of any comedy – perhaps this is balance out the darkness that hangs over most of the play. Regardless, they are still fools and fools are allies of comedy. Lucio as a fool is a brilliant case as almost every scene he is involved with after the inital visit to Angelo is between him and the Duke disguised as the Friar. There is a huge amount of dramatic irony wherein Lucio slanders the Duke unknowingly to the Duke – the audience knows what a terrible mistake he’s making that it’s such delicious irony but the things he says are extremely slanderous, making it all the more amusing for the audience knowing that eventually Lucio will get his comeuppance. Dramatic irony is a classic expectation I'd have of comedy. However, it is understandable why Measure For Measure causes such debate. It was definitely not the same exact genre as Comedy Of Errors with its farcical and outrageous tone. Measure For Measure is an extremely dark play. Its main themes are vice, power and judgement – these are not easily identified as comedic features. There is also no safe place like other comedies have – the entire city of Vienna is under the rule of Angelo and none can hide from him. In this play there is no change in where the characters are like in A Midsummer Night's Dream where they flee the city and enter a wood. Interestingly Angelo wrestles with his conscience through a series of soliliquies, which are supposedly more resemblant of a tragedy. Hamlet has one of the most famous Shakespeare soliloquies – but I'd argue that Benedick in Much Ado About Nothing has soliliquies and Much Ado is a far brighter play. In conclusion, Measure For Measure should be described as a tragicomedy, as it is not definitively either comedy or tragedy. But in terms of comedy or tragedy alone, it is more a comedy than a tragedy and meets my expectations of such far more due to the more numerous comedic features listed above.

Sunday, January 5, 2020

Society s Reliance On Renewable Energy - 1526 Words

Society’s reliance on the burning of fossil fuels for energy threatens to harm the environment. Transitioning from a fossil fuel energy economy to a solar-based one will not harm the Earth. Rather than pursuing a harmful energy policy in which big corporations continue to overload the ecosystem with fossil fuels, society could be using local renewable energy sources. The fossil fuel companies who have grown rich extracting raw materials from the ground want to interfere and co-opt with the expansion of renewable energy. People need to start a solar revolution focusing on clean energy built from the grassroots up. It is necessary to begin transitioning to renewable sources and start adopting solar and wind power. Renewable energy has the ability to play a major role in the energy industry of the twenty-first century. Shell and other big oil companies are ironically investing in renewable energy sources. Environmental experts realize that renewable energy helps reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. They also predict that by the year 2050, renewable power may grow to supply half the world’s energy. It may seem unreachable, but generating electricity by using the constant power of the sun and wind is already a reality. Solar power relies on the energy produced by the sun, storing energy for nighttime as well. â€Å"This energy can be converted in many ways, such as simple water heating or by the direct conversion of sunlight to energy using mirrors or boilers† (Riley). Solar panelShow MoreRelatedJapan s Impact On The World1195 Words   |  5 PagesJapan has undergone significant changes in reliance on energy sources within the last five years. Unfortunately, these changes have often been sporadic and unpredictable for its government and citizens. Japan is the third largest oil importer and the second largest coal importing country today. 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Green energy is becoming more popular in society. â€Å"The future is green energy , sustainability, renewable energy,† said by Arnold SchwarzeneggerRead MoreOil Wells That Ends Wells Essay1357 Words   |  6 Pagesthe increased pollution that extracting the petroleum from the Alberta oil sands would cause. While some believe the pipeline would benefit the economy, the short term material benefits are minimal compared to the eternal reward of creating clean energy. While it is extremely difficult for the world to replace oil entirely, I believe we must attempt in order to save the planet. To begin, while â€Å"No snowflake in an avalanche ever feels responsible†, all our carbon footprints compound to create the

Friday, December 27, 2019

The Origins of the Domesticated Grapevine

Domesticated grapevine (Vitis vinifera, sometimes called V. sativa) was one of the most important fruit species in the classic Mediterranean world, and it is the most important economic fruit species in the modern world today. As in the ancient past, sun-loving grapevines are today cultivated to produce fruits, which are eaten fresh (as table grapes) or dried (as raisins), and, most especially, to make wine, a drink of great economic, cultural, and symbolic value. The Vitis family consists of about 60 inter-fertile species that exist almost exclusively in the Northern Hemisphere: of those, V. vinifera is the only one extensively used in the global wine industry. Approximately 10,000 cultivars of V. vinifera exist today, although the market for wine production is dominated by only a handful of them. Cultivars are typically classified according to whether they produce wine grapes, table grapes, or raisins. Domestication History Most evidence indicates that V. vinifera was domesticated in Neolithic southwest Asia between ~6000–8000 years ago, from its wild ancestor V. vinifera spp. sylvestris, sometimes referred to as V. sylvestris. V. sylvestris, while quite rare in some locations, currently ranges between the Atlantic coast of Europe and the Himalayas. A second possible center of domestication is in Italy and the western Mediterranean, but so far the evidence for that is not conclusive. DNA studies suggest that one reason for the lack of clarity is the frequent occurrence in the past of purposeful or accidental cross-breeding of domestic and wild grapes. The earliest evidence for wine production—in the form of chemical residues inside pots—is from Iran at Hajji Firuz Tepe in the northern Zagros mountains about 7400–7000 BP. Shulaveri-Gora in Georgia had residues dated to the 6th millennium BC. Seeds from what are believed to be domesticated grapes have been found in Areni Cave in southeastern Armenia, about 6000 BP, and Dikili Tash from northern Greece, 4450–4000 BCE. DNA from grape pips thought to be domesticated was recovered from Grotta della Serratura in southern Italy from levels dated to 4300–4000 cal BCE. In Sardinia, the earliest dated fragments come from the Late Bronze Age levels of the Nuragic culture settlement of Sa Osa, 1286–1115 cal BCE. Diffusion By about 5,000 years ago, grapevines were traded out to the western margin of the Fertile Crescent, the Jordan Valley, and Egypt. From there, the grape was spread throughout the Mediterranean basin by various Bronze Age and Classical societies. Recent genetic investigations suggest that at this distribution point, the domestic V. vinifera was crossed with local wild plants in the Mediterranean. According to the 1st century BCE Chinese historical record Shi Ji, grapevines found their way into East Asia in the late 2nd century BCE, when General Qian Zhang returned from the Fergana Basin of Uzbekistan between 138–119 BCE. Grapes were later brought to Changan (now Xian city) via the Silk Road. Archaeological evidence from the steppe society Yanghai Tombs indicates, however, that grapes were grown in the Turpan Basin (at the western edge of what is today China) by at least 300 BCE. The founding of Marseille (Massalia) about 600 BCE is thought to have been connected with grape cultivation, suggested by the presence of a large number of wine amphorae from its early days. There, Iron Age Celtic people bought large quantities of wine for feasting; but overall viticulture was slow-growing until, according to Pliny, retired members of the Roman legion moved to the Narbonnaisse region of France at the end of the 1st century BCE. These old soldiers grew grapes and mass-produced wine for their working colleagues and the urban lower classes. Differences Between Wild and Domestic Grapes The main difference between wild and domestic forms of grape is the wild forms ability to cross-pollinate: wild V. vinifera can self-pollinate, while domestic forms cannot, which allows farmers to control a plants genetic characteristics. The domestication process increased the size of bunches and berries, and the berrys sugar content as well. The end result was greater yields, more regular production, and better fermentation. Other elements, such as larger flowers and a wide range of berry colors—particularly white grapes—are believed to have been bred into the grape later in the Mediterranean region. None of these characteristics are identifiable archaeologically, of course: for that, we must rely on changes in grape seed (pips) size and shape and genetics. In general, wild grapes bear roundish pips with short stalks, while domestic varieties are more elongated, with long stalks. Researchers believe the change results from the fact that larger grapes have larger, more elongated pips. Some scholars suggest that when pip shape varies within a single context, that probably indicates viticulture in process. However, in general, using shape, size, and form is only successful if the seeds were not deformed by carbonization, water-logging, or mineralization. All of those processes are what allows grape pits to survive in archaeological contexts. Some computer visualization techniques have been used to examine pip shape, techniques which hold promise to resolve this issue. DNA Investigations and Specific Wines So far, DNA analysis doesnt really help either. It supports the existence of one and possibly two original domestication events, but so many deliberate crossings since then have blurred researchers ability to identify the origins. What does seem apparent is that cultivars were shared across wide distances, along with multiple events of vegetative propagation of specific genotypes throughout the wine-making world. Speculation is rampant in the non-scientific world about the origins of specific wines: but so far scientific support of those suggestions is rare. A few that are supported include the Mission cultivar in South America, which was introduced into South America by Spanish missionaries as seeds. Chardonnay is likely to have been the result of a medieval-period cross between Pinot Noir and Gouais Blanc that took place in Croatia. The Pinot name dates to the 14th century and might have been present as early as the Roman Empire. And Syrah/Shiraz, despite its name suggesting an Eastern origination, arose from French vineyards; as did Cabernet Sauvignon. Sources Bouby, Laurent, et al. Bioarchaeological Insights into the Process of Domestication of Grapevine (Vitis Vinifera L.) 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